PHILOSOPHICAL PRAXIS COUNSELLING AND SPIRITUAL HEALING
(Registration No.477, 2000-2001)
SEVENTH NATIONAL SEMINAR ON
"FROM FRENZY TO TRANQUILITY (NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND PHILOSOPHICAL COUNSELLING) "
(February 17-18, 2019)
REGISTRATION IS OPEN
(It includes lodging & boarding)
♦ Registration fee for foreign delegates is $ 200/
(It includes lodging and boarding)
Note: These rates are applicable till the 31th December, 2018
Send D.D. in favour of Secretary, Society for Philosophical Praxis, counselling and Spiritual healing, Jaipur (Rajasthan)
Post Address: C-207, Manu Marg, Tilak Nagar Jaipur 302004
Or Transfer in the following Bank account:
Pan No. AABAP3656R
Pan No. AABAP3656R
Account No. 674701293437
IFSC Code ICIC0006747
MICR Code 302229018
ICICI Bank, Rajasthan University Campus, JLN MARG, JAIPUR-302004
You are requested to Contribute your research paper on one of the topics mentioned below.
- Negative emotions and Bhagwat Gita’s therapeutic methods-jnana,bhakti and Karma
- Bhagwat Gita : From emotions to tranquility
- Budha’s method of curing the diseases of belief and desires
- Patanjali’s Yoga as therapy
- Stoics analysis of emotions and method of overcoming the emotions
- Indian conceptions of philosophical practice
- The practices of transforming one’s own Mind and Body
- Healing tonic of Vedantic ( Ramanuja) teachings
- Return to the Self- Indian and Western philosophical therapy
- Returning to happiness and philosophical practice
- Role of Humanities ( performing Arts) and mental peace
The above listed sub-topics are only indicative and not exhaustive. Participants are free to present views on any aspect they consider associated with the general theme.
We would need to receive your complete paper by the 15th January 2019 There are plans that we will publish the accepted articles in a book form or in our journal-Atma-Vimarsa.
Dr. Rajveer Singh Shekhawat
(Organizer of the Seminar )
Note: Mail your paper : e-mail : 1. firstname.lastname@example.org
Or Secretary, PPCSHS , e-mail : 2. email@example.com
Emotions are important in human life in knowing how a person thinks and behaves. We all feel each day and know well how emotions influence our decisions we take about our lives and about the interpersonal relations and can compel us to take action. Our emotions can be short lived or fleeting and long lasting or persistent. Emotions can motivate us to take action, help us survive-thrive or avoid danger. Emotions allow others to understand us. They serve variety of purposes-such as motivate us to take decisions and to take actions. They also provide information about the situation as well as about others.
It is a fact that a Hand Book on philosophy of Mind published in the year 1960s has no reference to emotion even in the index. But now the Philosophical research in the emotions is an extremely active and productive, and it is a testament to this fact that Oxford University Press published a book- The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion.( 2010) which contains thirty chapters of original research from top scholars working in this field. The theories about the emotions have two directions- theories that owe their ancestry to the work of William James, arguing that emotions are bodily feelings or perceptions of bodily feelings; and, on the other hand, those theories that owe their ancestry to Aristotle and the Stoics, arguing that emotions are cognitive, world-directed intentional states. Other philosophers have argued that, whilst there are analogies to be drawn between emotion and other kinds of mental state, emotions are, at bottom, sui generis.
The philosophers, from Plato, Aristotle, Stoics, and medieval thinkers to Sartre in twentieth century,(1,2,3,4) have emphasized the positive and negative aspects of emotions and are of the view that all emotions ( negative or positive ) have cognitive elements too. Generally, any time a person is feeling negative emotions, it could be classified into one of the five “flavours” (and more than one of these types could be experienced at the same time). These flavours or types of negative emotions are : Sadness (depression, despair, hopelessness, etc.), Anxiety (fear, worry, concern, nervousness, panic, etc.) Anger (irritation, frustration, annoyance, rage, etc.) and Guilt (thoughts of having harmed someone, thoughts of having done something that goes against your own morals, Sense of responsibility for a negative outcome), Shame/Embarrassment (thoughts that other will judge flaws or mistakes in a negative way). These emotions effect negatively on the individual’s well- being.
Philosophers have taught that our affective states are closely connected to our views and that erroneous belief and desires lie at the root of human unhappiness. For example according to Buddhism the people who hold the view that existence is eternal and the self as unchanging, these erroneous opinions have a destructive effects on their values. We find these objects as highly desirable and we are caught in a web of attachment to them. Nagarjuna declares that: “As a child with his notion of truth, falls in love with mirror image, worldly people, due to delusion, are trapped in a thicket of objects.”6
According to Bhagwat Gita ( chapter 2 ) when a man thinks of the objects, attachment to them arises; from attachment desire is born and when desire is not fulfilled then anger arises. From anger comes delusion; from delusion the loss of memory; from loss of memory the destruction of discrimination; from the destruction of discrimination he perishes ( 2.62 and 63). The relationship between emotions and beliefs is causal. Beliefs influence desires and emotions . It is also the case that desires and emotions have an impact on beliefs. It is also a psychological fact that we do not accept beliefs that are unattractive to us .Desires often leads to rationalization. A person thinks that his desires for ( particular ) things are a source of happiness. But the self-controlled man, moving amongst objects with the senses under restraint, and free from attraction and repulsion, attains to peace. “In that peace all pains are destroyed, for the intellect of the tranquil-minded soon becomes steady”. ( 2.65)
Emotions and desires are expressions of our interpretation of the world. If our interpretation is out of accord with the way the world really is then unhappiness will result . The Patanjal Yoga ( spiritual action), accepts metaphysics and ontology of Sankhya ( knowledge) and thus yoga and knowledge are treated as practical and theoretical sides of the same system. Chitta ( the phenomenal ego or Jiva) which imagines it self as the agent and the enjoyer. He wrongly identifies with his mental modifications. The failure to discriminate between two opposite things ( or Realities) and the false belief of Chitta ( I am the agent and enjoyer) is the cause of his suffering. There are five kinds of afflictions ( kleshas; Avidya, asmita,raga, dvesha or aversion and abhinivesh) to which it is subject. Yoga also talks about five levels of mental life ( chittabhumi). First three are negative states : kshipt ( restless),Mudha ( torpid) and vikshipt ( distracted). Last two mental states are positive states : Ekagra (concentrated) and Nirudha ( restricted). Yoga as a therapeia helps the person to overcome individual’s false belief , kleshas and in the modification of negative mental life ( chittabhumi) and also helps in achieving positive mental life.
The philosopher Epicurus ( 341-271 BCE) gave famous voice to a conception of philosophy as a cure or remedy for the maladies of human soul and this recurring theme in Hellenistic thought has been subject of two important recent studies.7
The idea that philosophy as therapeutic, indeed was widely spread in India. Philosophical reflection is what awakens us to our condition and helps us find ways to live in those conditions with tranquility. It is possible because of relationship between thinking well and integrity of self. Philosophy need not be construed as an ‘ivory tower’ activity of intellectual cleverness divorced from everyday life.
The word therapy is generally used as methods of treating medically defined illness, but in Buddhistic context it refers to the treatment of deep seated dissatisfaction and confusion that afflicts us all. Buddha is believed as a doctor who offers medicine ( method) to cure the spiritual ills of the suffering world. In Pali scriptures, Buddha has been described as The Great Physician/healer and healing treatment is his teaching- the Dhamma. He was addressed as the Master of Healing ( bhaisajyaguru) who is believed to offer cures for both the spiritual and mundane ailments of sentient beings.8
The Yoga philosophy of Patanjali can be said to be a philosophy as therapeia. Yoga supposes the metaphysics and epistemology of Samkhya philosophy. Samkhya too begins with three kinds of suffering that torment human beings and Patanjali himself says that the following Yoga is, among other things, minimizes the afflictions ( Kleshas Yoga Sutra 2,2). Philosophy as therapeia is concerned with the healing transformation of human life, which knowledge and behaviour bring about in human life. Although Ramanuja does not use the medical analogy as such but the Vedantic teachings ( Bhakti) ,according to him, is also a healing means to a healing goal, a healing tonic for the self –suffering in the bondage of samsara. The self-suffering in Samsara is denied the bliss ( Ananada). Bliss is just the pleasing aspect of knowledge and to be a knower is to be one who experiences bliss For Ramanuja meditation( dhyana or upasana) is said to be a kind of Bhakti( devotion) that helps in realizing bliss-happiness( or return to the self). It may be said that in several philosophical traditions a common thought is,” that philosophy teaches us to consider our lives as if they are works of art and provide us with the methods needed to fashion a life accordingly.”9
You are requested to present your paper on any of the following themes ( or topics) :
1. Negative emotions and Bhagwat Gita’s therapeutic methods-jnana,bhakti and Karma
2. Bhagwat Gita : From emotions to tranquility
3. Budha’s method of curing the diseases of belief and desires
4. Patanjali’s Yoga as therapy
5. Stoics analysis of emotions and method of overcoming the emotions
6. Indian conceptions of philosophical practice
7. The practices of transforming one’s own Mind and Body
8. Healing tonic of Vedantic ( Ramanuja) teachings
9. Return to the Self- Indian and Western philosophical therapy
10. Returning to happiness and philosophical practice
11. Role of Humanities ( performing Arts) and mental peace
1. Price, A. W. Emotions in Plato and Aristotle. In. P. Goldie (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2010, pp. 121-142.
2. Zaborowski, R. Some Remarks on Plato on Emotions. Mirabilia, 15 (2), 2012, pp. 141-170.
3. Knuuttila, S. Emotions in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2004. p.8
4. Sartre, J.-P. The Emotions: Outline of a Theory. Philosophical Library: New York, 1948.
5. Prinz, J. Gut Reactions: a Perceptual Theory of Emotion. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2004.
*Stoicism is an ancient Greek philosophy (developed by Zeno of Citium around 300 B.C. as a refinement of Cynicism) which teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions.
6. Yuktisastika 53 ( with Chandra kirti’s commentary) English translation, American institute of Buddhist Studies,2007,p.203, New York
7. Rechard Sorabji: Emotions and Peace of Mind : From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation; Oxford Press 2000 and Martha Nussbaum: The Theology of desire : Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics’; Princeton University Press,N.J., 1994
8. Raoul Birnbaum: The Healing Buddha; Shambhala Publications. 1979
9. Jonardon Ganeri: Philosophy as therapeia( edited); Cambridge University Press,2010